Your Inner Fish That Wants to Play: What Anthropology Has to Say about Games - by Sergei Anankin Blogs - 4 December 2018 - 6:37am
A personal inquiry into anthropological reasons of playing in an attempt to derive some game design suggestions from our inherited desires, needs and behaviors.
Categories: Game Theory & Design

The Design Lessons Designers Fail to Learn From Dark Souls - by Josh Bycer Blogs - 4 December 2018 - 6:31am
The success of Dark Souls has spawned many imitators, and for today's post, we're going to look at the common elements people get wrong when analyzing Souls-Like design.
Categories: Game Theory & Design

How Enemy AI works in Dicey Dungeons - by Terry Cavanagh Blogs - 4 December 2018 - 6:09am
A detailed write up how the new Enemy AI works in my game, Dicey Dungeons! I tried to write it in a "popular science" style that's hopefully of interest to everyone, not just programmers.
Categories: Game Theory & Design Open links in popups with Foundation

Planet Drupal - 4 December 2018 - 3:16am

Let me take you on a journey. We'll pass by Drupal content renderer services, AJAX commands, javascript libraries and a popular front-end framework. If you've only heard of one or two of those things, come lean on the experience I took diving deep into Drupal. I'm pleased with where my adventure took me to, and maybe what I learned will be useful to you too.

Here's the end result: a contact form, launched from a button link in the site header, with the page beneath obscured by an overlay. The form allows site visitors to get in touch from any page, without leaving what they were looking at.

Drupal has its own API for making links launch dialogs (leveraging jQuery UI Dialogs). But our front-end of the site was built with Foundation, the super-popular theming framework, which provides components of its own that are much better for styling. We often base our bespoke themes on Foundation, and manipulate Drupal to fit.

We had already done some styling of Foundation's Reveal component. In those places, the markup to show in the popup is already in the page, but I didn't really want the form to be in the page until it was needed. Instead, AJAX could fetch it in. So I wondered if I could combine Drupal's AJAX APIs with Foundation's Reveal markup and styling. Come with me down the rabbit hole...

There are quite a few components in making this possible. Here's a diagram:

So it comes down to the following parts, which we'll explore together. Wherever custom code is needed, I've posted it in full later in this article.

  • A link that uses AJAX, with a dialog type set in an attribute.
  • Drupal builds the content of the page that was linked to.
  • Drupal's content view subscriber picks up that response and looks for a content renderer service that matches the dialog type.
  • The content renderer returns an AJAX command PHP class in its response, and attaches a javascript library that will contain a javascript AJAX command (a method).
  • That command returns the content to show in the popup, and that javascript method name.
  • The javascript method launches the popup containing the HTML content.

Let's start at the beginning: the link. Drupal's AJAX API for links is pretty neat. We trigger it with two things:

  1. A use-ajax class, which tells it to open that link via an AJAX call, returning just the main page content (e.g. without headers & footers), to be presented in your existing page.
  2. A data-dialog-type attribute, to instruct how that content should be presented. This can be used for the jQuery UI dialogs (written up elsewhere) or the newer off-canvas sidebar, for example.

I wanted to have a go at creating my own 'dialog type', which would be a Foundation Reveal popup. The HTML fetched by the AJAX call would be shown in it. Let's start with the basic markup I wanted to my link to have:


This could either just be part of content, or I could get this into a template using a preprocess function that would build the link. Something like this:

<?php // $url could have come from $node->toUrl(), Url::fromRoute() or similar. // For this example, it's come from a contact form entity. $url->setOption('attributes', [ 'class' => [ 'use-ajax', ], // This attribute tells it to use our kind of dialog 'data-dialog-type' => 'reveal', ]); // The variable 'popup_launcher' is to be used in the template. $variables['popup_launcher'] = \Drupal\Core\Link::fromTextAndUrl(t('Enquire'), $url);

After much reading around and breakpoint debugging to figure it out, I discovered that dialog types are matched up to content rendering services. So I needed to define a new one of those, which I could base closely on Drupal's own DialogRenderer. Here's the definition from my module's file:

services: main_content_renderer.foundation_reveal: class: Drupal\mymodule\Render\MainContent\FoundationReveal arguments: ['@title_resolver'] tags: - { name: render.main_content_renderer, format: drupal_reveal }

Adding the tag named 'render.main_content_renderer' means my class will be picked up by core's MainContentRenderersPass when building the container. Drupal's MainContentViewSubscriber will then consider it as a service that can render responses.

The 'format' part of the tag needs to be the value that our data-dialog-type attribute has, with (somewhat arbitrarily?) 'drupal_' prepended. The arguments will just be whatever the constructor for the class needs. I often write my class first and then go back to adjust the service definition once I know what it needs. But I'll be a good tour guide and show you things in order, rather than shuttling you backwards and forwards!

Onto that FoundationReveal service class now. I started out with a copy of core's own ModalRenderer which is a simple extension to the DialogRenderer class. Ultimately, that renderer is geared around returning an AJAX command (see the AJAX API documentation), which comes down to specifying a command to invoke in the client-side javascript with some parameters.

I would need my own command, and my FoundationReveal renderer would need to specify it to be used. That only two functional differences were needed in comparison to core's DialogRenderer:

  1. Attach a custom library, which would contain the actual javascript command to be invoked:
$main_content['#attached']['library'][] = 'mymodule/dialog.ajax';
  1. Return an AJAX command class, that will specify that javascript command (rather than the OpenDialogCommand command that DialogRenderer uses) - i.e. adding this to the returned $response:
new OpenFoundationRevealCommand('#mymodule-reveal')

We'll learn about that command class later!

So the renderer file, mymodule/src/Render/MainContent/FoundationReveal.php (in that location in order to match the namespace in the service file definition), looks like this - look out for those two tweaks:

<?php namespace Drupal\mymodule\Render\MainContent; use Drupal\Core\Ajax\AjaxResponse; use Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\DialogRenderer; use Drupal\Core\Routing\RouteMatchInterface; use Drupal\mymodule\Ajax\OpenFoundationRevealCommand; use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Request; /** * Default main content renderer for foundation reveal requests. */ class FoundationReveal extends DialogRenderer { /** * {@inheritdoc} */ public function renderResponse(array $main_content, Request $request, RouteMatchInterface $route_match) { $response = new AjaxResponse(); // First render the main content, because it might provide a title. $content = drupal_render_root($main_content); // Attach the library necessary for using the OpenFoundationRevealCommand // and set the attachments for this Ajax response. $main_content['#attached']['library'][] = 'core/drupal.dialog.ajax'; $main_content['#attached']['library'][] = 'mymodule/dialog.ajax'; $response->setAttachments($main_content['#attached']); // Determine the title: use the title provided by the main content if any, // otherwise get it from the routing information. $title = isset($main_content['#title']) ? $main_content['#title'] : $this->titleResolver->getTitle($request, $route_match->getRouteObject()); // Determine the dialog options and the target for the OpenDialogCommand. $options = $request->request->get('dialogOptions', []); $response->addCommand(new OpenFoundationRevealCommand('#mymodule-reveal', $title, $content, $options)); return $response; } }

That AJAX command class, OpenFoundationRevealCommand sits in mymodule/src/Ajax/OpenFoundationRevealCommand.php. Its render() method is the key, it returns the command which will map to a javascript function, and the actual HTML under 'data'. Here's the code:

<?php namespace Drupal\mymodule\Ajax; use Drupal\Core\Ajax\OpenDialogCommand; use Drupal\Core\StringTranslation\StringTranslationTrait; /** * Defines an AJAX command to open certain content in a foundation reveal popup. * * @ingroup ajax */ class OpenFoundationRevealCommand extends OpenDialogCommand { use StringTranslationTrait; /** * Implements \Drupal\Core\Ajax\CommandInterface:render(). */ public function render() { return [ 'command' => 'openFoundationReveal', 'selector' => $this->selector, 'settings' => $this->settings, 'data' => $this->getRenderedContent(), 'dialogOptions' => $this->dialogOptions, ]; } /** * {@inheritdoc} */ protected function getRenderedContent() { if (empty($this->dialogOptions['title'])) { $title = ''; } else { $title = '' . $this->dialogOptions['title'] . ''; } $button = 't('Close') . '" type="button">×'; return '' . $title . parent::getRenderedContent() . '' . $button; } }

Now, I've mentioned that the command needs to match a javascript function. That means adding some new javascript to the page, which, in Drupal 8, we do by defining a library. My 'mymodule/dialog.ajax' library was attached in the middle of FoundationReveal above. My library file defines what actual javascript file to include - it is mymodule.libraries.yml and looks like this:

dialog.ajax: version: VERSION js: js/dialog.ajax.js: {} dependencies: - core/drupal.dialog.ajax

Then here's that actual mymodule/js/dialog.ajax.js file. It adds the 'openFoundationReveal' method to the prototype of the globally-accessible Drupal.AjaxCommands. That matches the command name returned by my OpenFoundationRevealCommand::render() method that we saw.

(function ($, Drupal) { Drupal.AjaxCommands.prototype.openFoundationReveal = function (ajax, response, status) { if (!response.selector) { return false; } // An element matching the selector will be added to the page if it does not exist yet. var $dialog = $(response.selector); if (!$dialog.length) { // Foundation expects certain things on a Reveal container. $dialog = $('').appendTo('body'); } if (!ajax.wrapper) { ajax.wrapper = $dialog.attr('id'); } // Get the markup inserted into the page. response.command = 'insert'; response.method = 'html'; ajax.commands.insert(ajax, response, status); // The content is ready, now open the dialog! var popup = new Foundation.Reveal($dialog);; }; })(jQuery, Drupal);

There we have it - that last bit of the command opens the Foundation Reveal popup dialog!

I should also add that since I was showing a contact form in the popup, I installed the Contact ajax module. This meant that a site visitor would stay within the popup once they submit the form, which meant for a clean user experience.

Thanks for following along with me!

Categories: Drupal

WeKnow: Improving Drupal and Gatsby Integration - The Drupal Modules

Planet Drupal - 4 December 2018 - 3:15am
Improving Drupal and Gatsby Integration - The Drupal Modules

At weKnow we are not only using Drupal, we also take contributing back very seriously and now is the time for improving the Drupal and Gatsby integration.

As mentioned in my personal blog, Moving weKnow's personal blog sites from Drupal to GatsbyJS, we have been using Gatsby with Drupal for projects as our decouple strategy lately, and after building a few sites with Drupal and Gatsby we found some challenges, which we resolved writing custom code. But now we’ve decided to share our knowledge as contributed modules.

Toast UI Editor

This module provides a markdown WYSIWYG editor integration for Toast UI Editor

jmolivas Tue, 12/04/2018 - 11:15
Categories: Drupal

Web Omelette: Simple Guzzle API mocking for functional testing in Drupal 8

Planet Drupal - 4 December 2018 - 12:05am

In this article I am going to show you a technique I used recently to mock a relatively simple external service for functional tests in Drupal 8.

Imagine the following scenario: you have an API with one or a few endpoints and you write a service that handles the interaction with it. For example, one of the methods of this service takes an ID and calls the API in order to return the resource for that ID (using the Guzzle service available in Drupal 8). You then cast the Guzzle response stream to a string and return whatever from there to use in your application. How can you test your application with this kind of requirements?

The first thing you can do is unit test your service. In doing so, you can pass to it a mock client that can return whatever you set to it. Guzzle even provides a MockHandler that you can use with the client and specify what you want returned. Fair enough. But what about things like Kernel or Functional tests that need to use your client and make requests to this API? How can you handle this?

It’s not a good idea to use the live API endpoint in your tests for a number of reasons. For example, your testing pipeline would depend on an external, unpredictable service which can go down at any moment. Sure, it’s good to catch when this happens but clearly this is not the way to do it. Or you may have a limited amount of requests you can make to the endpoint. All these test runs will burn through your budget. And let’s not forget you need a network connection to run the tests.

So let’s see an interesting way of doing this using the Guzzle middleware architecture. Before diving into that, however, let’s cover a few theoretical aspects of this process.

Guzzle middlewares

A middleware is a piece of functionality that can be added to the pipeline of a process. For example, the process of turning a request into a response. Check out the StackPHP middlewares for a nice intro to this concept.

In Guzzle, middlewares are used inside the Guzzle handler stack that is responsible for turning a Guzzle request into a response. In this pipeline, middlewares are organised as part of the HandlerStack object which wraps the base handler that does the job, and are used to augment this pipeline. For example, let’s say a Guzzle client uses the base Curl handler to make the request. We can add a middleware to the handler stack to make changes to the outgoing request or to the incoming response. I highly recommend you read the Guzzle documentation on handlers and middlewares for more information.

Guzzle in Drupal 8

Guzzle is the default HTTP client used in Drupal 8 and is exposed as a service (http_client). So whenever we need to make external requests, we just inject that service and we are good to go. This service is instantiated by a ClientFactory that uses the default Guzzle handler stack (with some specific options for Drupal). The handler stack that gets injected into the client is configured by Drupal’s own HandlerStackConfigurator which also registers all the middlewares it finds.

Middlewares can be defined in Drupal as tagged services, with the tag http_client_middleware. There is currently only one available to look at as an example, used for the testing framework: TestHttpClientMiddleware.

Our OMDb (Open Movie Database) Mock

Now that we have an idea about how Guzzle processes a request, let’s see how we can use this to mock requests made to an example API: OMDb.

The client

Let’s assume a module called omdb which has this simple service that interacts with the OMDb API:

<?php namespace Drupal\omdb; use Drupal\Core\Site\Settings; use Drupal\Core\Url; use GuzzleHttp\ClientInterface; /** * Client to interact with the OMDb API. */ class OmdbClient { /** * @var \GuzzleHttp\ClientInterface */ protected $client; /** * Constructor. * * @param \GuzzleHttp\ClientInterface $client */ public function __construct(ClientInterface $client) { $this->client = $client; } /** * Get a movie by ID. * * @param \Drupal\omdb\string $id * * @return \stdClass */ public function getMovie(string $id) { $settings = $this->getSettings(); $url = Url::fromUri($settings['url'], ['query' => ['apiKey' => $settings['key'], 'i' => $id]]); $response = $this->client->get($url->toString()); return json_decode($response->getBody()->__toString()); } /** * Returns the OMDb settings. * * @return array */ protected function getSettings() { return Settings::get('omdb'); } }

We inject the http_client (Guzzle) and have a single method that retrieves a single movie from the API by its ID. Please disregard the complete lack of validation and error handling, I tried to keep things simple and to the point. To note, however, is that the API endpoint and key is stored in the settings.php file under the omdb key of $settings. That is if you want to play around with this example.

So assuming that we have defined this service inside as omdb.client and cleared the cache, we can now use this like so:

$client = \Drupal::service('omdb.client'); $movie = $client->getMovie('tt0068646');

Where $movie would become a stdClass representation of the movie The Godfather from the OMDb.

The mock

Now, let’s assume that we use this client to request movies all over the place in our application and we need to write some Kernel tests that verify that functionality, including the use of this movie data. One option we have is to switch out our OmdbClient client service completely as part of the test, with another one that has the same interface but returns whatever we want. This is ok, but it’s tightly connected to that test. Meaning that we cannot use it elsewhere, such as in Behat tests for example.

So let’s explore an alternative way by which we use middlewares to take over any requests made towards the API endpoint and return our own custom responses.

The first thing we need to do is create a test module where our middleware will live. This module will, of course, only be enabled during test runs or any time we want to play around with the mocked data. So the module can be called omdb_tests and we can place it inside the tests/module directory of the omdb module.

Next, inside the namespace of the test module we can create our middleware which looks like this:

<?php namespace Drupal\omdb_tests; use Drupal\Core\Site\Settings; use GuzzleHttp\Promise\FulfilledPromise; use GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Response; use Psr\Http\Message\RequestInterface; use Psr\Http\Message\ResponseInterface; /** * Guzzle middleware for the OMDb API. */ class OmdbMiddleware { /** * Invoked method that returns a promise. */ public function __invoke() { return function ($handler) { return function (RequestInterface $request, array $options) use ($handler) { $uri = $request->getUri(); $settings = Settings::get('omdb'); // API requests to OMDb. if ($uri->getScheme() . '://' . $uri->getHost() . $uri->getPath() === $settings['url']) { return $this->createPromise($request); } // Otherwise, no intervention. We defer to the handler stack. return $handler($request, $options); }; }; } /** * Creates a promise for the OMDb request. * * @param RequestInterface $request * * @return \GuzzleHttp\Promise\PromiseInterface */ protected function createPromise(RequestInterface $request) { $uri = $request->getUri(); $params = \GuzzleHttp\Psr7\parse_query($uri->getQuery()); $id = $params['i']; $path = drupal_get_path('module', 'omdb_tests') . '/responses/movies'; $json = FALSE; if (file_exists("$path/$id.json")) { $json = file_get_contents("$path/$id.json"); } if ($json === FALSE) { $json = file_get_contents("$path/404.json"); } $response = new Response(200, [], $json); return new FulfilledPromise($response); } }

Before explaining what all this code does, we need to make sure we register this as a tagged service inside our test module:

services: omdb_tests.client_middleware: class: Drupal\omdb_tests\OmdbMiddleware tags: - { name: http_client_middleware }

Guzzle middleware services in Drupal have one single (magic) method called __invoke. This is because the service is treated as a callable. What the middleware needs to do is return a (callable) function which gets as a parameter the next handler from the stack that needs to be called. The returned function then has to return another function that takes the RequestInterface and some options as parameters. At this point, we can modify the request. Lastly, this function needs to make a call to that next handler by passing the RequestInterface and options, which in turn will return a PromiseInterface. Take a look at TestHttpClientMiddleware for an example in which Drupal core tampers with the request headers when Guzzle makes requests during test runs.

So what are we doing here?

We start by defining the first two (callable) functions I mentioned above. In the one which receives the current RequestInterface, we check for the URI of the request to see if it matches the one of our OMDb endpoint. If it doesn’t we simply call the next handler in the stack (which should return a PromiseInterface). If we wanted to alter the response that came back from the next handler(s) in the stack, we could call then() on the PromiseInterface returned by the stack, and pass to it a callback function which receives the ResponseInterface as a parameter. In there we could make the alterations. But alas, we don’t need to do that in our case.

A promise represents the eventual result of an asynchronous operation. The primary way of interacting with a promise is through its then method, which registers callbacks to receive either a promise's eventual value or the reason why the promise cannot be fulfilled.

Read this for more information on what promises are and how they work.

Now for the good stuff. If the request is made to the OMDb endpoint, we create our own PromiseInterface. And very importantly, we do not call the next handler. Meaning that we break out of the handler stack and skip the other middlewares and the base handler. This way we prevent Guzzle from going to the endpoint and instead have it return our own PromiseInterface.

In this example I decided to store a couple of JSON responses for OMDb movies in files located in the responses/movies folder of the test module. In these JSON files, I store actual JSON responses made by the endpoint for given IDs, as well as a catch-all for whenever a missing ID is being requested. And the createPromise() method is responsible for determining which file to load. Depending on your application, you can choose exactly based on what you would like to build the mocked responses.

The loaded JSON is then added to a new Response object that can be directly added to the FulfilledPromise object we return. This tells Guzzle that the process is done, the promise has been fulfilled, and there is a response to return. And that is pretty much it.


This is a very simple implementation. The API has many other ways of querying for data and you could extend this to store also lists of movies based on a title keyword search, for example. Anything that serves the needs of the application. Moreover, you can dispatch an event and allow other modules to provide their own resources in JSON format for various types of requests. There are quite a lot of possibilities.

Finally, this approach is useful for “simple” APIs such as this one. Once you need to implement things like Oauth or need the service to call back to your application, some more complex mocking will be needed such as a dedicated library and/or containerised application that mocks the production one. But for many such cases in which we read data from an endpoint, we can go far with this approach.

Categories: Drupal

Advanced Designers & Dragons: Designers & Dragons Next — Fantasy Flight Games: 2004-Present

RPGNet - 4 December 2018 - 12:00am
A more in-depth look at Fantasy Flight Games over the last decade.
Categories: Game Theory & Design

Code Karate: Drupal 8 Rabbit Hole Module

Planet Drupal - 3 December 2018 - 8:03pm
Episode Number: 221

The Drupal 8 Rabbit Hole Module allows you to control what happens when someone views an entity page. Before you ask why this might be important, let me clarify, it's not a layout tool. It's a simple module that allows you to easily redirect or prevent users from viewing specific types on entities on your site.

Tags: DrupalContribDrupal 8Site BuildingDrupal Planet
Categories: Drupal

DrupalCon News: Community Connection - Kelly Tetterton

Planet Drupal - 3 December 2018 - 4:34pm

We’re featuring some of the people in the Drupalverse! This Q&A series highlights some of the individuals you could meet at DrupalCon. Every year, DrupalCon is the largest gathering of people who belong to this community. To celebrate and take note of what DrupalCon means to them, we’re featuring an array of perspectives and some fun facts to help you get to know your community.

Categories: Drupal

Video: Designing UX for board games

Social/Online Games - Gamasutra - 3 December 2018 - 3:22pm

In this GDC 2018 session, Foxtrot Games' Randy Hoyt explores the many details that board game publishers and producers consider when turning solid game prototypes into great product experiences. ...

Categories: Game Theory & Design

DrupalEasy: DrupalEasy Podcast 212 - Commerce Guys: decoupling and roadmap with Bojan Zivanovic and Matt Glaman

Planet Drupal - 3 December 2018 - 3:15pm

Direct .mp3 file download.

DrupalEasy Podcast 212 - Commerce Guys: decoupling and roadmap

Matt Glaman, (mglaman) and Bojan Zivanovic, (bojanz) join Mike live from Disney World to talk about decoupling Drupal Commerce as well as the roadmap for Drupal Commerce as a project. We take a quick side trip into some blog posts Matt recently wrote about running all of Drupal core's automated tests in DDEV-Local.

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Categories: Drupal

Jeff Geerling's Blog: Testing the 'Add user' and 'Edit account' forms in Drupal 8 with Behat

Planet Drupal - 3 December 2018 - 2:20pm

On a recent project, I needed to add some behavioral tests to cover the functionality of the Password Policy module. I seem to be a sucker for pain, because often I choose to test the things it seems there's no documentation on—like testing the functionality of the partially-Javascript-powered password fields on the user account forms.

In this case, I was presented with two challenges:

  • I needed to run one scenario where a user edits his/her own password, and must follow the site's configured password policy.
  • I needed to run another scenario where an admin creates a new user account, and must follow the site's configured password policy for the created user's password.

So I came up with the following scenarios:

Categories: Drupal


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