All RPGs and Storygames by Tod Foley are now available at DrivethruRPG and RPGnow. Bring these games to your table!
Provides extra functionality not found in core related to content blocks and plugin blocks.
- Provides an edit button and a preview button on `/admin/structure/block/manage/BLOCK_ID`:
The CMI Module offers innovative electronic payment solutions for your transactions by TPE, credit card, e-commerce platform and mobile payment.
Choosing a platform on which to build your website can be a daunting task. There is an ever-growing list of content management systems (CMS) from advanced platforms like Drupal and WordPress to all-inclusive DIY website builders like Wix and Squarespace. The right choice depends on factors such as desired functionality, flexibility, available budget, and your ability to manage the site after launch.
Where you fall on the spectrum between mom-and-pop shops and enterprise businesses will also heavily influence your decision.
Mom-and-Pop <—————————> EnterpriseQuestions to consider before choosing your CMS
- How often do you want to post or update content?
- How many content editors will be adding to the site?
- Do your editors need varying degrees of access and permissions?
- Will your site have a heavy reliance on search, interactivity, or 3rd-party integrations?
- Do you have specific design needs that require multiple custom layouts?
- Will you be able to support the site without developer support?
- What is your project budget?
- What is your post-launch support budget?
WordPress and Drupal have many things in common. Both are open source and freely available, are supported by their developer communities who contribute code to the projects including regular security updates, and offer extensive add-on functionality to the CMS core through plugins and modules.
Site builders or content managers who have used both systems often have a bias for WordPress over Drupal, considering WordPress the more user-friendly of the two. Before one can accurately make such an assessment, I believe the comparison must be apples to apples between comparably sized sites with similar functionality or complexity. If one compares how user-friendly WordPress is for creating and managing a personal blog or small business website that requires no customizations and has static content versus the complexities of using Drupal to build a site for the enterprise with dynamic relationships between various data points, that is not a reasonable comparison. It is true that Drupal has a higher learning curve than WordPress largely due to the amount of available customization that is built into its core. WordPress is simple to use, especially for blogs or small sites, but not necessarily scalable or suited for larger more complex sites. If pushed to the enterprise end of the spectrum above, would WordPress still maintain its user-friendliness and be able to scale? Conversely, Drupal is best suited for enterprise level sites with custom requirements and would add unnecessary development overhead if chosen for a small site or blog.If WordPress and Drupal were Lego types...
I’ve often thought of Wordpress and Drupal in terms of Lego whereas:
WordPress is like Lego Duplo where you can build things easily with preformed shapes as long as those preformed shapes match your specific needs. These preformed shapes equate to plugins to add functionality and pre-designed theme templates that determine the styles and layout of your site. Duplo blocks are appropriate for ages 1-5 or, in other words, personal projects or small to medium businesses with simpler requirements.
Drupal is like Lego Technic where you can build whatever you can imagine with little to nothing preformed. Like Technic pieces, Drupal has highly configurable plugins that provide granular control over the functionality of your site and do not impose pre-selected designs to your theme. They are appropriate for ages 7-16 or, in other words, medium to large businesses or organizations with complex requirements.
With that analogy in mind, let's explore some of the advantages of each platform.Advantages of WordPress
Confession: I love WordPress. It’s true! As a non-developer with several personal projects outside of work, whether it was for my consultant friend who needed a five-page site with a contact form, a guitarist wanting to promote his music, or managing several blogs, WordPress meets those needs perfectly. Below are the features that stand out in my experience from which people draw the conclusion that WordPress is so user-friendly.Dashboard
Upon logging into WordPress you are presented a user-friendly and intuitive admin interface from which you can figure out almost instinctively how to manage your website. You can quickly navigate to various types of content or site functionality from the left rail admin toolbar. The admin toolbar has appropriately named menu items. Hovering over each one triggers a slide out sub navigation making it easy to find the action or setting for which you are looking.Media Library
Adding images to your content or as a featured image above a post or page is quite simple. With a click of a button, you can add images, audio or video files, documents, and PDFs. Images are automatically given responsive image styles so that they adapt appropriately to the width of one’s browser window or mobile device.
Though not specifically part of the media library, inserting YouTube or Vimeo videos into a post is as simple as pasting the URL. WordPress will render the video as embedded on the page (also works with Twitter and Instagram posts).Adding Content
As noted above, the Dashboard provides quick access in a few different ways to add new content. The Add New Post (or another type of content) edit page has a visual WYSIWYG editor for formatting your content with links to add media, categories, tags, and visibility of your new post. You can easily view revisions after content has been published and revised with functionality that is provided out of the box.Plugins and Themes
I’m grouping these two together because here is where we begin to add to WordPress core and its out of the box functionality. I’ve used 3rd-party plugins to add custom forms, simple e-commerce capabilities, invoicing and client management features, automated backups, and SEO enhancements to WordPress sites. The WordPress Plugin Directory boasts 56,182 available plugins to add functionality that is not included or as customizable within WordPress core. Many plugins are completely free or offer freemium versions with more advanced premium features available for a one-time charge or subscription fee.
Likewise, the WordPress Theme Directory offers many free or commercial templates searchable by layout options, features, or subject (topic matter of your site). Themes typically have some customization built-in to control layout options, widgets, background images, and the like.
WordPress Core, installed plugins and themes can be updated with the click of a button through the Dashboard.
*Plugins are a double-edged sword in that they add flexibility from a non-developer standpoint while simultaneously introducing more risk from a security standpoint. The more 3rd-party plugins you use, the more dependence you will have on those 3rd-parties keeping their code secure by providing timely updates. Security issues with WordPress are introduced most often through vulnerabilities exploited in plugins.Lower development costs
This isn’t a feature of WordPress, but it’s worth mentioning that if the “out of the box” solutions meet your needs and you are able to build a site without the assistance of a developer, it will cost you less. If you fall on the mom-and-pop end of the spectrum, have a lower development budget, and are not picky about every detail of design or functionality, WordPress is likely a great option for you.Advantages of DrupalCustom content types and views
Whereas WordPress comes with two content types (posts and pages), Drupal also comes with two content types out of the box (article and basic page). However, it not only allows you to edit the fields for those content types but also create new content types and views without custom code that meet your specific requirements. If your site needs a blog, you can create a content type for blog posts and a view that displays them the way you want. If you need a staff directory, you can create a content type for staff that has fields for name, title, profile picture, bio, etc., and then create a view to display the staff in a list, a grid, or to whatever your specs require.
This is one way in which Drupal and WordPress differ. Drupal is an application framework that allows you to build what you need the way you need it. WordPress core starts as a blog that makes you add to core in order to manipulate its built-in behavior. For example, in order to disable blogging in WordPress, you have to install a 3rd-party plugin such as Disable Blogging in WordPress.
If you compare WordPress core and Drupal core, Drupal is far more robust than WordPress.Access control and user permissions
Out of the box Drupal core allows you to create and define your own user roles and associated permissions for each. If your site requirements call for multiple levels of user permissions with varying degrees of access, Drupal lets you create new roles and assign them with custom permissions. And, unlike WordPress, Drupal allows granting more than one role to your users. This gives you fine-grained control over what they are allowed to do. Building on the previous example of a staff directory, you could create a role for Staff and only give that role permissions to edit one’s bio page. All of these customizations for roles and permissions can be done in the admin without adding any custom code.Taxonomy
Whereas the tagging system in WordPress is flat, in Drupal you can have multiple types of categorization and determine how much information you want to track on each one. Drupal allows you to create more complex and custom data relationships across various types of content.Internationalization
Want the Drupal admin to display in the native language of your officemate overseas? No problem! Native language handling is now built into Drupal 8’s core APIs which improve the ease of globalization management. Building a multilingual site no longer requires installing multiple contributed modules.Security
Drupal is known for having a volunteer security team and a standardized set of policies and procedures for dealing with security issues. Security advisories are routinely posted on https://www.drupal.org/security for Drupal core as well as contributed projects. For enterprise clients with specific security needs, the Drupal distribution Guardr is available with a combination of modules and settings to enhance the Drupal application’s security.Customization
As a web application framework, Drupal can be adapted to meet very specific requirements. For example, the Drupal entity system allows tracking specific data points and values that are needed when building applications. At times, Content Types aren’t the best choice for these data elements, and more custom entities allow for improved performance and fit the requirements best.
If this has you scratching your head, you’re not the only one. I’m purposely skirting around the complexity of the section because it is beyond the scope of what I’m trying to speak to here. The important difference here is that Drupal allows tracking points of data without cluttering up the editorial experience. Sometimes the data needs to be seen but not heard. Drupal lets you do that. And site editors may never even realize it’s happening.Conclusion
As a site builder who has built dozens of sites in HTML, Joomla, and WordPress and worked for five years as a project manager at Mediacurrent (almost exclusively with Drupal), I realize that the Lego analogy may be helpful but at the same time not completely accurate. After all, WordPress boasts such enterprise level sites such as Techcrunch, Sony Music, and Time, Inc. But my experience reinforces the perception that WordPress is amazing at simple sites or blogs while Drupal is the go-to for more complex sites.
I’ve found that clients will like a template design exactly the way it comes except for “insert numerous design changes” or the plugin functionality as-is “if you change this one behavior that isn’t built into the plugin.” And at that point, the gains of using out of the box functionality and design offered by WordPress (either via core WordPress or plugins and themes) are lost to customizations and a custom Drupal implementation is preferred. If you fall on the enterprise end of the spectrum and have deeply refined technical requirements, Drupal is likely a great option for you.
It comes down to the level of complexity for which you need to plan. If you are building a large site that is essentially brochureware (static pages), WordPress will work for you. If your site requirements call for a dynamic application with a heavy reliance on custom search results, interactivity, or 3rd-party integrations, or if you have specific design needs that require multiple custom layouts, your best bet is to use Drupal 8.
Acquia Developer Center Blog: Jumpstart Your Drupal 8 Adventure with this Webinar on Acquia Lightning
Because this flexible Drupal 8 distribution streamlines the process of building and delivering feature-rich Drupal 8 sites. It takes the guesswork out of Drupal 8 module selection and configuration for key features like media, page building, and workflow.Tags: acquia drupal planet
Module outputs pure html code of given region without any additional unrelated
markup, css, js and mostly other cache tags and contexts. It's essential if you
want to analyze the region and how it influences the page rendering or caching
Creating great website content and presenting it well is the best way to improve Google rankings and engage more visitors. While you need to create the content, Drupal 8 is one of the elite Content Management Systems (CMS) available to organize and show it off well. Drupal’s ability to organize your marketing content is one of the reasons it has always been great for SEO.
A winning SEO strategy requires relevant, timely, and well-organized content. Website content provides the relevant substance for your keywords and includes links to related content. Fresh content takes precedence over older, stale content in Google search results. When your website content is well-organized, visitors and search engines will find it easier to navigate and Google will reward your site with even... Read the full article: How to Use Drupal 8 to Clean Up Your Content
Six months ago, Drupal's evaluator experience was complex, time-consuming, and frustrating. That's changed dramatically.
I previously published an article in which I compared the evaluator experience for Drupal against that of Wordpress, Symfony, and Laravel. I attempted to get a new "Hello World" site up and running in each of the four different PHP frameworks and recorded a few statistics.
At the time, Drupal required the most in-browser clicks (to discover relevant documentation, download, etc.) and came in next-to-last in total time required.Google search term Clicks Commands run Total Time Symfony 3 3 1:55 Wordpress 7 0 7:51 Drupal 20+ 0 10:42 Laravel 3… more
Drupal already does very good job regarding caching and invalidating the content. But sometimes you may want to make couple of adjustments to cache behavior. For instance, you may want to sanitize (strip) particular cache tags and cache contexts which are too generic and place some more specific ones instead.
This module introduces couple of such caching improvements.
The relationship between content and code is not a healthy one anymore. The consumer-facing presentation layer is not as removed from the content editor layer, as it used to be, mainly because of the new interactive experiences being provided to consumers through apps.
Modern frameworks and programming languages allow for flexibility in the formation of your content management stack. Thus, decoupling content from code has become a common practice in the recent years and Drupal was one of the early adopters of the same.
This blog has been re-posted and edited with permission from Dries Buytaert's blog. Please leave your comments on the original post.
We just released Drupal 8.6.0. With six minor releases behind us, it is time to talk about the long-term future of Drupal 8 (and therefore Drupal 7 and Drupal 9). I've written about when to release Drupal 9 in the past, but this time, I'm ready to provide further details.
The plan outlined in this blog has been discussed with the Drupal 7 Core Committers, the Drupal 8 Core Committers and the Drupal Security Team. While we feel good about this plan, we can't plan for every eventuality and we may continue to make adjustments.Drupal 8 will be end-of-life by November 2021
Drupal 8's innovation model depends on introducing new functionality in minor versions while maintaining backwards compatibility. This approach is working so well that some people have suggested we institute minor releases forever, and never release Drupal 9 at all.
However that approach is not feasible. We need to periodically remove deprecated functionality to keep Drupal modern, maintainable, and performant, and we need to stay on secure, supported versions of Drupal 8's third-party dependencies. As Nathaniel Catchpole explained in his post "The Long Road to Drupal 9", our use of various third party libraries such as Symfony, Twig, and Guzzle means that we need to be in sync with their release timelines.
Our biggest dependency in Drupal 8 is Symfony 3, and according to Symfony's roadmap, Symfony 3 has an end-of-life date in November 2021. This means that after November 2021, security bugs in Symfony 3 will not get fixed. To keep your Drupal sites secure, Drupal must adopt Symfony 4 or Symfony 5 before Symfony 3 goes end-of-life. A major Symfony upgrade will require us to release Drupal 9 (we don't want to fork Symfony 3 and have to backport Symfony 4 or Symfony 5 bug fixes). This means we have to end-of-life Drupal 8 no later than November 2021.Drupal 9 will be released in 2020, and it will be an easy upgrade
If Drupal 8 will be end-of-life on November 2021, we have to release Drupal 9 before that. Working backwards from November 2021, we'd like to give site owners one year to upgrade from Drupal 8 to Drupal 9.
If November 2020 is the latest we could release Drupal 9, what is the earliest we could release Drupal 9?
We certainly can't release Drupal 9 next week or even next month. Preparing for Drupal 9 takes a lot of work: we need to adopt Symfony 4 and/or Symfony 5, we need to remove deprecated code, we need to allow modules and themes to declare compatibility with more than one major version, and possibly more. The Drupal 8 Core Committers believe we need more than one year to prepare for Drupal 9.
Therefore, our current plan is to release Drupal 9 in 2020. Because we still need to figure out important details, we can't be more specific at this time.
If we release Drupal 9 in 2020, it means we'll certainly have Drupal 8.7 and 8.8 releases.Wait, I will only have one year to migrate from Drupal 8 to 9?
Yes, but fortunately moving from Drupal 8 to 9 will be far easier than previous major version upgrades. The first release of Drupal 9 will be very similar to the last minor release of Drupal 8, as the primary goal of the Drupal 9.0.0 release will be to remove deprecated code and update third-party dependencies. By keeping your Drupal 8 sites up to date, you should be well prepared for Drupal 9.
And what about contributed modules? The compatibility of contributed modules is historically one of the biggest blockers to upgrading, so we will also make it possible for contributed modules to be compatible with Drupal 8 and Drupal 9 at the same time. As long as contributed modules do not use deprecated APIs, they should work with Drupal 9 while still being compatible with Drupal 8.Drupal 7 will be supported until November 2021
Historically, our policy has been to only support two major versions of Drupal; Drupal 7 would ordinarily reach end of life when Drupal 9 is released. Because a large number of sites might still be using Drupal 7 by 2020, we have decided to extend support of Drupal 7 until November 2021. Drupal 7 will be receive community support for three whole more years.We'll launch a Drupal 7 commercial Long Term Support program
In the past, commercial vendors have extended Drupal's security support. In 2015, a Drupal 6 commercial Long Term Support program was launched and continues to run to this day. We plan a similar paid program for Drupal 7 to extend support beyond November 2021. The Drupal Security Team will announce the Drupal 7 commercial LTS program information by mid-2019. Just like with the Drupal 6 LTS program, there will be an application for vendors.We'll update Drupal 7 to support newer versions of PHP
The PHP team will stop supporting PHP 5.x on December 31st, 2018 (in 3 months), PHP 7.0 on December 3rd, 2018 (in 2 months), PHP 7.1 on December 1st, 2019 (in 1 year and 3 months) and PHP 7.2 on November 30th, 2020 (in 2 years and 2 months).
Drupal will drop official support for unsupported PHP versions along the way and Drupal 7 site owners may have to upgrade their PHP version. The details will be provided later.
We plan on updating Drupal 7 to support newer versions of PHP in line with their support schedule. Drupal 7 doesn't fully support PHP 7.2 yet as there have been some backwards-incompatible changes since PHP 7.1. We will release a version of Drupal 7 that supports PHP 7.2. Contributed modules and custom modules will have to be updated too, if not already.Conclusion
If you are still using Drupal 7 and are wondering what to do, you currently have two options:
- Stay on Drupal 7 while also updating your PHP version. If you stay on Drupal 7 until after 2021, you can either engage a vendor for a long term support contract, or migrate to Drupal 9.
- Migrate to Drupal 8 by 2020, so that it's easier to update to Drupal 9 when it is released.
The announcements in this blog post made option (1) a lot more viable and/or hopefully helps you better evaluate option (2).
If you are on Drupal 8, you just have to keep your Drupal 8 site up-to-date and you'll be ready for Drupal 9.
We plan to have more specifics by April 2019 (DrupalCon Seattle).
Thanks for the Drupal 7 Core Committers, the Drupal 8 Core Committers and the Drupal Security Team for their contributions to this blog post.
This week, thousands of members of the Drupal community have come together to share insights and to celebrate the power of open source. Embracing knowledge transfer, the Digital Transformation and Enterprise track stands out as accessible for developers, marketers and business owners alike.
This blog has been re-posted and edited with permission from Dries Buytaert's blog. Please leave your comments on the original post.
For the past two years, I've examined Drupal.org's commit data to understand who develops Drupal, how much of that work is sponsored, and where that sponsorship comes from.
I have now reported on this data for three years in a row, which means I can start to better compare year-over-year data. Understanding how an open-source project works is important because it establishes a benchmark for project health and scalability.
This year's report affirms that Drupal has a large and diverse community of contributors. In the 12-month period between July 1, 2017 and June 30, 2018, 7,287 different individuals and 1,002 different organizations contributed code to Drupal.org. This include contributions to Drupal core and all contributed projects on Drupal.org.
In comparison to last year's report, both the number of contributors and contributions has increased. Our community of contributors (including both individuals and organizations) is also becoming more diverse. This is an important area of growth, but there is still work to do.
For this report, we looked at all of the issues marked "closed" or "fixed" in our ticketing system in the 12-month period from July 1, 2017 to June 30, 2018. This includes Drupal core and all of the contributed projects on Drupal.org, across all major versions of Drupal. This year, 24,447 issues were marked "closed" or "fixed", a 5% increase from the 23,238 issues in the 2016-2017 period. This averages out to 67 feature improvements or bug fixes a day.
In total, we captured 49,793 issue credits across all 24,447 issues. This marks a 17% increase from the 42,449 issue credits recorded in the previous year. Of the 49,793 issue credits reported this year, 18% (8,822 credits) were for Drupal core, while 82% (40,971 credits) went to contributed projects.
"Closed" or "fixed" issues are often the result of multiple people working on the issue. We try to capture who contributes through Drupal.org's unique credit system. We used the data from the credit system for this analysis. There are a few limitations with this approach, which we'll address at the end of this report.What is the Drupal.org credit system?
In the spring of 2015, after proposing ideas for giving credit and discussing various approaches at length, Drupal.org added the ability for people to attribute their work to an organization or customer in the Drupal.org issue queues. Maintainers of Drupal modules, themes, and distributions can award issue credits to people who help resolve issues with code, translations, documentation, design and more.
A screenshot of an issue comment on Drupal.org. You can see that jamadar worked on this patch as a volunteer, but also as part of his day job working for TATA Consultancy Services on behalf of their customer, Pfizer.
Credits are a powerful motivator for both individuals and organizations. Accumulating credits provides individuals with a way to showcase their expertise. Organizations can utilize credits to help recruit developers, to increase their visibility within the Drupal.org marketplace, or to showcase their Drupal expertise.Who is working on Drupal?
In the 12-month period between July 1, 2017 to June 30, 2018, 24,447, Drupal.org received code contributions from 7,287 different individuals and 1,002 different organizations.
While the number of individual contributors rose, a relatively small number of individuals still do the majority of the work. Approximately 48% of individual contributors received just one credit. Meanwhile, the top 30 contributors (the top 0.4%) account for more than 24% of the total credits. These individuals put an incredible amount of time and effort in developing Drupal and its contributed projects:Rank Username Issues 1 RenatoG 851 2 RajabNatshah 745 3 jrockowitz 700 4 adriancid 529 5 bojanz 515 6 Berdir 432 7 alexpott 414 8 mglaman 414 9 Wim Leers 395 10 larowlan 360 11 DamienMcKenna 353 12 dawehner 340 13 catch 339 14 heddn 327 15 xjm 303 16 pifagor 284 17 quietone 261 18 borisson_ 255 19 adci_contributor 255 20 volkswagenchick 254 21 drunken monkey 231 22 amateescu 225 23 joachim 199 24 mkalkbrenner 195 25 chr.fritsch 185 26 gaurav.kapoor 178 27 phenaproxima 177 28 mikeytown2 173 29 joelpittet 170 30 timmillwood 169
Out of the top 30 contributors featured, 15 were also recognized as top contributors in our 2017 report. These Drupalists' dedication and continued contribution to the project has been crucial to Drupal's development. It's also exciting to see 15 new names on the list. This mobility is a testament to the community's evolution and growth. It's also important to recognize that a majority of the 15 repeat top contributors are at least partially sponsored by an organization. We value the organizations that sponsor these remarkable individuals, because without their support, it could be more challenging to be in the top 30 year over year.How diverse is Drupal?
Next, we looked at both the gender and geographic diversity of Drupal.org code contributors. While these are only two examples of diversity, this is the only available data that contributors can currently choose to share on their Drupal.org profiles. The reported data shows that only 7% of the recorded contributions were made by contributors that do not identify as male, which continues to indicates a steep gender gap. This is a one percent increase compared to last year. The gender imbalance in Drupal is profound and underscores the need to continue fostering diversity and inclusion in our community.
To address this gender gap, in addition to advancing representation across various demographics, the Drupal community is supporting two important initiatives. The first is to adopt more inclusive user demographic forms on Drupal.org. Adopting Open Demographics on Drupal.org will also allow us to improve reporting on diversity and inclusion, which in turn will help us better support initiatives that advance diversity and inclusion. The second initiative is supporting the Drupal Diversity and Inclusion Contribution Team, which works to better include underrepresented groups to increase code and community contributions. The DDI Contribution Team recruits team members from diverse backgrounds and underrepresented groups, and provides support and mentorship to help them contribute to Drupal.
It's important to reiterate that supporting diversity and inclusion within Drupal is essential to the health and success of the project. The people who work on Drupal should reflect the diversity of people who use and work with the software. While there is still a lot of work to do, I'm excited about the impact these various initiatives will have on future reports.
When measuring geographic diversity, we saw individual contributors from 6 different continents and 123 different countries:
The top 20 countries from which contributions originate. The data is compiled by aggregating the countries of all individual contributors behind each commit. Note that the geographical location of contributors doesn't always correspond with the origin of their sponsorship. Wim Leers, for example, works from Belgium, but his funding comes from Acquia, which has the majority of its customers in North America.
123 different countries is seven more compared to the 2017 report. The new countries include Rwanda, Namibia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Swaziland, Zambia. Seeing contributions from more African countries is certainly a highlight.How much of the work is sponsored?
Issue credits can be marked as "volunteer" and "sponsored" simultaneously (shown in jamadar's screenshot near the top of this post). This could be the case when a contributor does the minimum required work to satisfy the customer's need, in addition to using their spare time to add extra functionality.
While Drupal started out as a 100% volunteer-driven project, today the majority of the code on Drupal.org is sponsored by organizations. Only 12% of the commit credits that we examined in 2017-2018 were "purely volunteer" credits (6,007 credits), in stark contrast to the 49% that were "purely sponsored". In other words, there were four times as many "purely sponsored" credits as "purely volunteer" credits.
A few comparisons between the 2017-2018 and the 2016-2017 data:
- The credit system is being used more frequently. In total, we captured 49,793 issue credits across all 24,447 issues in the 2017-2018 period. This marks a 17% increase from the 42,449 issue credits recorded in the previous year. Between July 1, 2016 and June 30, 2017, 28% of all credits had no attribution while in the period between July 1, 2017 to June 30, 2018, only 25% of credits lacked attribution. More people have become aware of the credit system, the attribution options, and their benefits.
- Sponsored credits are growing faster than volunteer credits. Both "purely volunteer" and "purely sponsored" credits grew, but "purely sponsored" credits grew faster. There are two reasons why this could be the case: (1) more contributions are sponsored and (2) organizations are more likely to use the credit system compared to volunteers.
No data is perfect, but it feels safe to conclude that most of the work on Drupal is sponsored. At the same time, the data shows that volunteer contribution remains very important to Drupal. Maybe most importantly, while the number of volunteers and sponsors has grown year over year in absolute terms, sponsored contributions appear to be growing faster than volunteer contributions. This is consistent with how open source projects grow and scale.Who is sponsoring the work?
Now that we've established a majority of contributions to Drupal are sponsored, we want to study which organizations contribute to Drupal. While 1,002 different organizations contributed to Drupal, approximately 50% of them received four credits or less. The top 30 organizations (roughly the top 3%) account for approximately 48% of the total credits, which implies that the top 30 companies play a crucial role in the health of the Drupal project. The graph below shows the top 30 organizations and the number of credits they received between July 1, 2017 and June 30, 2018:
The top 30 contributing organizations based on the number of Drupal.org commit credits.
While not immediately obvious from the graph above, a variety of different types of companies are active in Drupal's ecosystem:Category Description Traditional Drupal businesses Small-to-medium-sized professional services companies that primarily make money using Drupal. They typically employ fewer than 100 employees, and because they specialize in Drupal, many of these professional services companies contribute frequently and are a huge part of our community. Examples are Chapter Three and Lullabot (both shown on graph). Digital marketing agencies Larger full-service agencies that have marketing-led practices using a variety of tools, typically including Drupal, Adobe Experience Manager, Sitecore, WordPress, etc. They tend to be larger, with the larger agencies employing thousands of people. Examples are Wunderman and Mirum. System integrators Larger companies that specialize in bringing together different technologies into one solution. Example system agencies are Accenture, TATA Consultancy Services, Capgemini and CI&T (shown on graph). Technology and infrastructure companies Examples are Acquia (shown on graph), Lingotek, BlackMesh, Rackspace, Pantheon and Platform.sh. End-users Examples are Pfizer (shown on graph) or NBCUniversal.
A few observations:
- Almost all of the sponsors in the top 30 are traditional Drupal businesses. Companies like MD Systems (12 employees), Valuebound (58 employees), Chapter Three (33 employees), Commerce Guys (13 employees) and PreviousNext (22 employees) are, despite their size, critical to Drupal's success.
- Compared to these traditional Drupal businesses, Acquia has nearly 800 employees and at least ten full-time Drupal contributors. Acquia works to resolve some of the most complex issues on Drupal.org, many of which are not recognized by the credit system (e.g. release management, communication, sprint organizing, and project coordination). Acquia added several full-time contributors compared to last year, however, I believe that Acquia should contribute even more due to its comparative size.
- No digital marketing agencies show up in the top 30, though some of them are starting to contribute. It's exciting that an increasing number of digital marketing agencies are delivering beautiful experiences using Drupal. As a community, we need to work to ensure that each of these firms are contributing back to the project with the same commitment that we see from firms like Commerce Guys, CI&T or Acro Media. Compared to last year, we have not made meaningful progress on growing contributions from digital marketing agencies. It would be interesting to see what would happen if more large organizations mandated contributions from their partners. Pfizer, for example, only works with agencies and vendors that contribute back to Drupal, and requires that its agency partners contribute to open source. If more organizations took this stance, it could have a big impact on the number of digital agencies that contribute to Drupal
- The only system integrator in the top 30 is CI&T, which ranked 3rd with 959 credits. As far as system integrators are concerned, CI&T is a smaller player with approximately 2,500 employees. However, we do see various system integrators outside of the top 30, including Globant, Capgemini, Sapient and TATA Consultancy Services. Each of these system integrators reported 30 to 85 credits in the past year. The top contributor is TATA with 85 credits.
- Infrastructure and software companies also play an important role in our community, yet only Acquia appears in the top 30. While Acquia has a professional services division, more than 75% of the contributions come from the product organization. Other infrastructure companies include Pantheon and Platform.sh, which are both venture-backed, platform-as-a-service companies that were born from the Drupal community. Pantheon has 6 credits and Platform.sh has 47 credits. Amazee Labs, a company that is building an infrastructure business, reported 40 credits. Compared to last year, Acquia and Rackspace have slightly more credits, while Pantheon, Platform.sh and Amazee contributed less. Lingotek, a vendor that offers cloud-based translation management software has 84 credits.
- We also saw three end-users in the top 30 as corporate sponsors: Pfizer (491 credits, up from 251 credits the year before), Thunder (432 credits), and the German company, bio.logis (319 credits, up from 212 credits the year before). Other notable customers outside of the top 30, include Workday, Wolters Kluwer, Burda Media, YMCA and OpenY, CARD.com and NBCUniversal. We also saw contributions from many universities, including University of Colorado Boulder, University of Waterloo, Princeton University, University of Adelaide, University of Sydney, University of Edinburgh, McGill University and more.
We can conclude that technology and infrastructure companies, digital marketing agencies, system integrators and end-users are not making significant code contributions to Drupal.org today. How can we explain this disparity in comparison to the traditional Drupal businesses that contribute the most? We believe the biggest reasons are:
- Drupal's strategic importance. A variety of the traditional Drupal agencies almost entirely depend on Drupal to support their businesses. Given both their expertise and dependence on Drupal, they are most likely to look after Drupal's development and well-being. Contrast this with most of the digital marketing agencies and system integrators who work with a diversified portfolio of content management platforms. Their well-being is less dependent on Drupal's success.
- The level of experience with Drupal and open source. Drupal aside, many organizations have little or no experience with open source, so it is important that we motivate and teach them to contribute.
- Legal reservations. We recognize that some organizations are not legally permitted to contribute, let alone attribute their customers. We hope that will change as open source continues to get adopted.
- Tools barriers. Drupal contribution still involves a patch-based workflow on Drupal.org's unique issue queue system. This presents a fairly steep learning curve to most developers, who primarily work with more modern and common tools such as GitHub. We hope to lower some of these barriers through our collaboration with GitLab.
- Process barriers. Getting code changes accepted into a Drupal project — especially Drupal core — is hard work. Peer reviews, gates such as automated testing and documentation, required sign-offs from maintainers and committers, knowledge of best practices and other community norms are a few of the challenges a contributor must face to get code accepted into Drupal. Collaborating with thousands of people on a project as large and widely-used as Drupal requires such processes, but new contributors often don't know that these processes exist, or don't understand why they exist.
Drupal is used by more than one million websites. Everyone who uses Drupal benefits from work that thousands of other individuals and organizations have contributed. Drupal is great because it is continuously improved by a diverse community of contributors who are enthusiastic to give back.
However, the vast majority of the individuals and organizations behind these Drupal websites never participate in the development of the project. They might use the software as it is or don't feel the need to help drive its development. We have to provide more incentive for these individuals and organizations to contribute back to the project.
Consequently, this data shows that the Drupal community can do more to entice companies to contribute code to Drupal.org. The Drupal community has a long tradition of encouraging organizations to share code rather than keep it behind firewalls. While the spirit of the Drupal project cannot be reduced to any single ideology — not every organization can or will share their code — we would like to see organizations continue to prioritize collaboration over individual ownership.
We understand and respect that some can give more than others and that some might not be able to give back at all. Our goal is not to foster an environment that demands what and how others should give back. Our aim is not to criticize those who do not contribute, but rather to help foster an environment worthy of contribution. This is clearly laid out in Drupal's Values and Principles.
Given the vast amount of Drupal users, we believe continuing to encourage organizations and end-users to contribute is still a big opportunity. From my own conversations, it's clear that organizations still need need education, training and help. They ask questions like: "Where can we contribute?", "How can we convince our legal department?", and more.
There are substantial benefits and business drivers for organizations that contribute: (1) it improves their ability to sell and win deals and (2) it improves their ability to hire. Companies that contribute to Drupal tend to promote their contributions in RFPs and sales pitches. Contributing to Drupal also results in being recognized as a great place to work for Drupal experts.What projects have sponsors?
We observe that the top 30 contributors are sponsored by 58 organizations. This kind of diversity is aligned with our desire to make sure that Drupal is not controlled by a single organization. These top contributors and organizations are from many different parts of the world, and work with customers large and small. Nonetheless, we will continue to benefit from an increased distribution of contribution.Limitations of the credit system and the data
While the benefits are evident, it is important to note a few of the limitations in Drupal.org's current credit system:
- Contributing to issues on Drupal.org is not the only way to contribute. Other activities, such as sponsoring events, promoting Drupal, and providing help and mentorship are also important to the long-term health of the Drupal project. Many of these activities are not currently captured by the credit system. For this post, we chose to only look at code contributions.
- We acknowledge that parts of Drupal are developed on GitHub and therefore aren't fully credited on Drupal.org. The actual number of contributions and contributors could be significantly higher than what we report. The Drupal Association is working to integrate GitLab with Drupal.org. GitLab will provide support for "merge requests", which means contributing to Drupal will feel more familiar to the broader audience of open source contributors who learned their skills in the post-patch era. Some of GitLab's tools, such as inline editing and web-based code review, will also lower the barrier to contribution, and should help us grow both the number of contributions and contributors on Drupal.org.
- Even when development is done on Drupal.org, the credit system is not used consistently. As using the credit system is optional, a lot of code committed on Drupal.org has no or incomplete contribution credits.
- Not all code credits are the same. We currently don't have a way to account for the complexity and quality of contributions; one person might have worked several weeks for just one credit, while another person might receive a credit for ten minutes of work. In the future, we should consider issuing credit data in conjunction with issue priority, patch size, etc. This could help incentivize people to work on larger and more important problems and save coding standards improvements for new contributor sprints. Implementing a scoring system that ranks the complexity of an issue would also allow us to develop more accurate reports of contributed work.
Like Drupal itself, the Drupal.org credit system needs to continue to evolve. Ultimately, the credit system will only be useful when the community uses it, understands its shortcomings, and suggests constructive improvements.Conclusion
Our data confirms that Drupal is a vibrant community full of contributors who are constantly evolving and improving the software. While we have amazing geographic diversity, we still need greater gender diversity, in addition to better representation across various demographic groups. Our analysis of the Drupal.org credit data concludes that most contributions to Drupal are sponsored. At the same time, the data shows that volunteer contribution remains very important to Drupal.
As a community, we need to understand that a healthy open source ecosystem includes more than the traditional Drupal businesses that contribute the most. We still don't see a lot of contribution from the larger digital marketing agencies, system integrators, technology companies, or end-users of Drupal — we believe that might come as these organizations build out their Drupal practices and Drupal becomes more strategic for them.
To grow and sustain Drupal, we should support those that contribute to Drupal and find ways to get those that are not contributing involved in our community. We invite you to help us continue to strengthen our ecosystem.